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United Nations, United Nations Secretary General

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The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that aims to preserve world peace, security, and cooperation. It was established on 24 October 1945, and currently has 193 member nations. The headquarters of the United Nations is located in New York City. It is an important place where representatives of member states meet to discuss social, economic, and political issues.

Within the United Nations, there are agreements in a number of constitutional and culturally related contexts, including social justice, human rights, development, science and technology, and environmental protection.

The main purposes of the United Nations include peace and security, human rights, development, and international cooperation. Its main objective is to ensure the peace and security of the world, which is affected by conflicts in various regions.

The main organs of the United Nations are:

  • United Nations General Assembly.
  • security Council.
  • United Nations Economic and Social Council.
  • United Nations Trust Council.
  • International Court of Justice.
  • United Nations Secretariat.

All these 6 organs were established at the time of the establishment of the United Nations in the year 1945.

  1. United Nations General Assembly

The General Assembly is an important part of the United Nations. It is responsible for deliberations and policy-making. All 193 UN member states are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation. The General Assembly is held at the General Assembly in New York and holds general debates, and many nations participate prominently. A two-thirds majority is required in the General Assembly to decide on important issues such as peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters. Decisions on other questions are taken by simple majority. The President of the General Assembly is elected every year by the General Assembly for a term of one year.

  1. security Council

The Security Council is composed of fifteen member states, including five permanent members – China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States and ten non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly on a regional basis for two years.United Nations Charter International peace and security is its primary responsibility. “Veto power” refers to the power of a permanent member to veto (reject) any resolution of the Security Council. The five permanent members having unconditional veto power is considered the most undemocratic feature of the United Nations.

  1. Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue, and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the implementation of the goals at the international level. It consists of 54 members elected by the General Assembly for a term of three years. It is the United Nations' central forum for debate and innovative thinking on sustainable development. Each year ECOSOC structures its work around an annual theme of global importance for sustainable development. It focuses on ECOSOC's partners and the entire UN development system. It coordinates the work of 14 UN specialized agencies, ten functional commissions and five regional commissions, receives reports from nine UN funds and programmes, and issues policy recommendations to the UN system and Member States.

  1. Trusteeship Council

The mandate of the League of Nations was a legal instrument for transferring control of certain territories from one country to another after the First World War and contained internationally agreed terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations. It was established in the year 1945 by the United Nations Charter under Chapter XIII. The UN Trust Territories were responsible for enforcing League mandates among the remaining nations, and came into existence when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. It was to provide international supervision for 11 trust territories which were placed under the administration of seven member states and at the same time take adequate steps for the self-governance and independence of these territories. By the year 1994, all the trust territories had achieved self-government or independence. The Trust Council ceased operations on November 1, 1994.

  1. International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice was established by the Charter of the United Nations in June 1945 and began functioning in April 1946. The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. The International Court of Justice replaced the Permanent Court of International Justice, which was established by the League of Nations in 1920.

  1. Secretariat

In the Secretariat, the Secretary-General of the United Nations is the chief administrative officer of the organization, who is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. United Nations The General Assembly appointed Antonio Guterres as the ninth United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) for a second term from January 1, 2022 to December 31, 2026. In accordance with the United Nations Charter, the Secretary-General personally selects an international group of skilled, competent and honest staff to assist him.

  • Resolving international conflicts/disputes.
  • Managing peacekeeping operations.
  • Organizing international conferences.
  • To monitor the implementation of Security Council resolutions.
  • To negotiate with the members and governments of the United Nations.

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The Secretary-General presents an annual report to the United Nations General Assembly regarding the achievements and problems of the organization. He can also draw the attention of the United Nations Security Council to a matter threatening world peace and security in a particular region. The powers of the UN Secretary-General are greater than those of any other UN official. He can advise the governments of member states and use the influence associated with his position to solve problems.

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The Constitution and structure of the United Nations plays an important role in encouraging the growth and development of the world. Through this, countries around the world have made a shared pledge that they will work together to promote social, economic, and environmental messages.

The United Nations has tried to unite the world in the spirit of unity, cooperation, and restraint. Its main objective is to ensure world prosperity and social justice, which leads to a strong, prosperous, and capable world.

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