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List of Volcanoes in India

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There may not be many volcanoes in India, but they are very important from scientific and geological point of view. The presence of these volcanoes provides important information about the geological history and evolution of the Indian subcontinent. There are some active, dormant, and extinct volcanoes found in India, including active volcanoes like Barren Island and dormant volcanoes like Narkandam. In this article, we will present a list of volcanoes present in India, discussing their locations, types, and their geological importance.

What are volcanoes and how are they formed?

A volcano is like a mountain that can sometimes spew hot, molten rock, ash, and gases from inside the Earth. These discharges can be powerful and produce lava flows, ash clouds, and even explosions. Volcanoes form when there are cracks or openings in the Earth's crust, which is the outer shell of our planet. Inside the Earth, there is a layer called the mantle, and sometimes, hot, molten rock from the mantle called magma makes its way through these cracks in the crust. When this magma comes out of the earth's surface it forms a volcano.

Different types of volcanoes

India is not traditionally associated with volcanic activity, and has no active volcanoes. However, there are some areas in India that have volcanic features or remnants of ancient volcanic activity. Here are the main types of volcanoes found in India:

Shield Volcano: Shield volcanoes are characterized by broad, gently sloping profiles and are formed by the eruption of low-viscosity basaltic lava flows. While there are no active shield volcanoes in India, the Deccan Traps in the western part of the country are the remains of extensive shield volcanic activity that occurred about 60 million years ago.

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Stratovolcano (composite volcano): Stratovolcanoes are steep-sloped, conical volcanoes formed by alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, and volcanic rocks. These volcanoes are associated with explosive eruptions due to a build-up of gas pressure. While there are no active stratovolcanoes in India, the Barren Island Volcano in the Andaman Sea is a subduction zone stratovolcano and is the only active volcano in India.

Calderas: Calderas are large, basin-shaped depressions that form when the ground collapses after a volcanic eruption. Lonar Lake in Maharashtra is a saline soda lake located within a basaltic impact crater, probably formed by meteorite impact rather than volcanic activity. However, due to its similar appearance it is sometimes called a volcanic crater.

Volcanic Plateau: Volcanic plateaus are large, flat areas formed by the accumulation of lava flows over time. The Deccan Plateau in India is a volcanic plateau composed primarily of basaltic lava erupted from the Deccan Traps volcanic eruptions.

List of Volcanoes in India

Both active and inactive volcanoes are found in India. Apart from this, there are also some extinct volcanoes in the Indian subcontinent. Here is the list of major volcanoes in India:

List of Volcanoes in India
name of volcanoplaceNature
barren islandAndaman and Nicobar IslandsActive since 2017
Narcondam IslandAndaman and Nicobar IslandsInactive (last eruption 1681)
Baratang IslandAndaman and Nicobar IslandsNot very active but still in existence, mud volcanoes (not very active)
DhinodharGujaratExtinct (about 500 million years ago)
Dhosi HillHaryanaDormant (about 750 million years ago)
Topsham HillsHaryanaExtinct (about 732 million years ago)
Loktak LakeManipurSupervolcanic caldera (about 100 million years ago) Unknown
Volcanoes of Deccan PlateauMaharashtra, KarnatakaExtinct (about 25 million years ago)

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Active, dormant and extinct volcanoes in India

barren island

Located in the blue waters of the Andaman Sea, Barren Island is India's only active volcano. Classified as a stratovolcano, it rises to a height of 354 metres. Its last eruption, observed in 2018, underlines its ongoing volcanic activity.


Another gem of the Andaman Islands, Narcondam, presents a fascinating stratovolcano with a height of 710 meters. While dormant, its explosive history remains unclear. Narcondam's lush vegetation and diverse fauna contribute to its ecological importance, attracting biologists and nature lovers to unravel its mysteries.

wedding procession

Despite not being a traditional volcano, Baratang Island boasts captivating mud volcanoes – which are the result of gas and mud eruptions. These unique geological formations offer a glimpse of Earth's dynamic processes. Although their eruption patterns are unpredictable, the mud volcanoes of Baratang continue to attract visitors with their bubbling mud craters and otherworldly landscapes.

Dhosi Hill

Located in Haryana, Dhosi Hill stands as a silent sentinel of India's volcanic past. Pictured in the form of a volcanic plug, it reaches a modest height of 320 metres. Despite the lack of recent eruptions, the geological importance of Dhosi Hill is undisputed, serving as a testament to India's diverse topography and geological heritage.

Dhinodhar Hills

The Dhinodhar Hills of Gujarat have a unique geological formation known as the Tuff Ring. These hills, rising up to 358 metres, hold the secrets of ancient volcanic activity, providing valuable insights into the geological evolution of India.

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Topsham Hills

The Tosham Hills of Haryana, dotted with volcanic cones, stand at a height of 207 metres. Although their eruptive history is unclear, these hills contribute to the diverse geological landscape of India, which invites exploration and scientific investigation.

deccan plateau

Spread across Maharashtra, the Deccan Plateau is famous for its extensive basaltic lava flows, a legacy of past volcanic activity. Although not marked by towering peaks, the geological importance of the Deccan Plateau lies in its flood basalt formations, which shape the topography and ecosystem of the region.

Loktak Lake

Manipur's Loktak Lake boasts a unique geological feature known as a maar – a shallow, wide crater formed by phreatomagmatic eruptions. With an elevation of 768 metres, Loktak Lake is not only a natural wonder but also an important habitat for diverse flora and fauna.

India's largest volcano

India's largest volcano is “Barren Island”, which is located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is also the only active volcano in India. Barren Island is periodically active and its last major eruption was in 2017. This volcano is located in the Andaman Sea. Barren Island's volcano is approximately 354 meters high and its caldera is approximately 2 kilometers wide. Barren Island Volcano is a stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, meaning it features a steep-sided, conical shape formed by alternating layers of lava flows, ash, and volcanic rocks.

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