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definition, types, examples of compound

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Compound is a linguistic term that joins two or more words to form a new word. This is also known as “conjunction” in grammar. Here we will provide detailed information about the definition, types, and examples of compound.

definition of compound

'Sansanam' iti samas. Thus the word compound means condensation. When two or more words are combined without their suffixes or inflections, then it is called compound. In simple words, when several words come together to form a phrase and when a new word is formed by the combination of two or more words and its new meaning emerges, then it is called compound. An attempt is made to express more meaning in fewer words through compound words. By separating the compound a new meaning emerges.

In compound composition two words are joined. The first term is called Purva Padma and the second term is called Uttar Padma. The new term that is formed by combining these terms is called compound term.

examples of compound
Previous term + Answer term = Total term (Samaas)
Shiva + Bhakta = Shiva devotee
pocket + expenses = pocket money
Chatuh + Bhuj = Chaturbhuj (Vishnu)

types of compound

There are many types of compound words which play an important role in grammar. Based on the priority of the posts, the compound has been divided into six parts.

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अव्ययीभाव समास

The compound in which the antecedent is avyaya is called avyayibhava compound. It works as an adverb in the sentence.


  • lifetime = lifetime
  • daily = every day

tatpurusha compound

The compound in which the antecedent is secondary and the latter is dominant is called Tatpurush compound. There is omission of preposition between both the posts.


  • Akashpatit = fallen from the sky
  • Rajputra = son of the king

There are 6 types of Tatpurush Samas, which are as follows

Types of Tatpurush Samas
karma tatpurusha compoundKarma Tatpurush Samas is formed by omitting the sign 'ko'.
  • bus driver = bus driver
  • Skyscraper = one who kisses the sky
Karan Tatpurush SamasKaran Tatpurush compound is formed by omission of 'from' and 'by'.
  • Congenital = born from birth
  • asked for by mouth = asked by mouth
Sampradan Tatpurush SamasSampradan is formed by omission of Tatpurush compound 'for'.
  • Satyagraha = insistence for truth
  • battlefield = land for war
Apadana Tatpurush SamasApadana Tatpurush compound is formed by omission of 'se'.
  • moneyless=bereft of money
  • fearful = afraid of fear
Relationship Tatpurusha SamasThe relation Tatpurush compound is formed by the omission of 'ka', 'ke' and 'ki'.
  • horse racing = horse racing
  • Capitalist = husband of capital
Adhikaran Tatpurusha SamasAdhikarana Tatpurush compound is formed by omission of 'in' and 'par'.
  • Neetinipuna = expert in policy
  • self-confidence = belief in self

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conflict compound

The compound in which both the antecedent and the antecedent are prominent, that is, both have independent existence from the point of view of meaning and the connecting word is missing between them, then it is called Dwandva Samas.


  • Ram-Krishna = Ram and Krishna
  • brother-sister = brother and sister

Karmadharaya Samas

In this compound both the terms are prominent. There is a feeling of expert-adjective, simile-analogy among its posts. In this, the characteristics of any one term are described or compared.


  • Pitambar = Amber (clothes) which is yellow
  • Shashimukh = face like Shashi

Dvigu Samas

In Dvigu Samas, the first pada gives the sense of number and the second pada is dominant. A numerical word gives the idea of ​​a group or a collection. The second term of this compound is given importance.


  • Saptadeep = group of seven lamps
  • Tribhuvan = group of three Bhuvans

Bahuvrihi Samas

In Bahuvrihi compound no position is dominant. In this, both the words together form a new word, which gives a new meaning. Which defines this term.

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  • Mahatma = great soul which means one with high soul
  • Neelkanth = blue throat which means Lord Shiva

difference between different compounds

Different types of compound differ in their usage, structure, and meaning. Here's a general explanation of the differences between these various compound words:

  1. Tatpurush Samas and Dvigu Samas: In Tatpurush Samas, the first word is a quality or adjective of the second word, whereas in Dvigu Samas, the relationship between both the words is synonymous. For example, in “Ramakrishna” (Tatpurush Samas) “Ram” is the multiple of “Krishna”, while “Shri Krishna” (Dvigu Samas) consists of both “Shri” and “Krishna”.
  2. Karmadharaya Samas and Bahuvrihi Samas: In Karmdharay Samas, the first word indicates the work, whereas in Bahuvrihi Samas, the meaning of the compound is derived from the word Samashti. For example, “Dhanurdhari” (Karmadharay Samas) has the person holding “Dhanu”, while “Saptdweep” (Bahuvrihi Samas) has both “Sapta” and “Dweep” being the bearers.

Some examples of compound

Blueskyblue sky
Nationheronational hero
MaleWomanmale and female
Blackchiliblack pepper

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