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Know all the important information related to its members, work and sessions.

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Parliament of India: Indian Parliament is an important pillar of the country's democracy. It is the institution that manifests the basic elements of democracy through truth and justice. The laws, policies and decisions made by the Parliament direct the politics, society and economy of the country. In this article, we will know the integral importance of the Indian Parliament and its functions in detail.

Parliament of India

Parliament is the legislative organ of the central government and the supreme legislative body of India. The first general elections under the new Constitution of India were held during the year 1951–52 and the first elected Parliament came into existence in April 1952. It is composed of the President of India and two houses: the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The President can summon or adjourn either House of Parliament, or dissolve the Lok Sabha. A bill becomes law only after it is passed by both houses of the Parliament. The Indian Parliament Building was designed by British architects Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker in 1912–1913. It was opened in 1927 to house the Central Legislative Assembly, the Council of States and the Chamber of Princes.

Members of Indian Parliament

Articles 79 to 122 in Part V of the Constitution deal with the organisation, composition, duration, officers, procedures, privileges and powers of Parliament. The details of members of the Indian Parliament are given below.

Rajya Sabha

The maximum number of Rajya Sabha members is 250. 238 members are elected by the state and 12 members are nominated by the President for their contribution in the fields of arts, literature, science and social services. Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not dissolved. However, one-third of the total members of the Rajya Sabha retire every other year, and are replaced by newly elected members. Each member of the Rajya Sabha is elected for a term of six years.

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha or the lower house of the Parliament is made up of representatives of the people who are elected by direct election on the basis of Universal Adult Suffrage. The maximum number of Lok Sabha members is 552 – 530 members to represent the States, 20 members to represent the Union Territories and 2 members from the Anglo-Indian community nominated by the President. The current number of members of the Lok Sabha is 545. Lok Sabha members hold their seats for 5 years Can continue until or unless the Lok Sabha is dissolved by the President on the advice of the Cabinet. Earlier, the President had also nominated two members of the Anglo-Indian community, but by the 95th Amendment Act, 2009, this provision was valid only till 2020.

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The President of India is not a member of either House and does not participate in the meetings of the Parliament, but he is an integral part of the Parliament. He is the head of state and is the highest formal authority in the country. Elected members of Parliament (MPs) and elected members of legislative assemblies (MLAs) elect the President of India.

Parliament House

Parliament House, which Parliament House Also called, is situated in New Delhi. It was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker. The construction of the building took six years. The inauguration ceremony was performed by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, on 18 January 1927. The construction cost of the Parliament House was ₹8.3 million (US$100,000).

Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of the new Parliament building in December 2020. The new Parliament was ready in less than three years. This triangular shaped four-storey building is spread over 64,500 square meters. The new Parliament building is approximately 17,000 square meters larger than the old Parliament. This building constructed with state-of-the-art technology will not be affected by earthquakes. The construction of the new Parliament building has cost Rs 1200 crore, which was earlier estimated at Rs 971 crore.

Functions of the Parliament of India:

The functions of Parliament can be classified under several categories, such as legislative functions, executive functions, financial functions, etc.

legislative action

  1. Parliament makes laws on all matters which are mentioned in the Union and Concurrent Lists.
  2. In the case of the Concurrent List, where the State Legislatures and the Parliament have joint jurisdiction, the law of the Union will continue to apply to the States unless the State law has first received assent from the President. However, Parliament can, at any time, add to or amend any law made by the state legislature.
  3. Parliament in the following circumstances state list Can pass laws on matters.
    • If there is an emergency, or President's rule is imposed in a state, Parliament can also make laws on matters in the State List.
    • Parliament can make laws on matters in the State List If the upper house of Parliament passes and votes for a resolution by a two-thirds majority of its present members, Parliament is required to make laws on any matters included in the State List. Make laws in national interest.
    • Parliament can pass laws on matters in the State List, if it is necessary for the implementation of international agreements or treaties with foreign powers.
    • If the Legislatures of two or more States pass a resolution to the effect that it is desirable to have parliamentary legislation on any of the matters listed in the State List, then the Parliament can make laws for those States.

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Executive functions (control over the executive)

In the parliamentary form of government, the executive is answerable to the legislature. Therefore, Parliament keeps a check on the executive by several measures.

  1. by no-confidence motion, Parliament can remove the Cabinet (executive) from power. It can also reject the proposal of a budget or any other bill which may be presented by the Cabinet.
  2. Members of Parliament can ask questions to ministers on their tenure and commissions. Any lapse on the part of the government can be exposed in Parliament.
  3. Parliament, A committee on the assurance of the minister Appoints, which keeps an eye on whether the promises made by the ministers in the Parliament are fulfilled or not.
  4. Censure motion: A censure motion is passed by the members of the opposition party in the House to strongly reject any policy of the government. It can be moved only in the Lok Sabha. Immediately after the censure motion is passed, the government has to obtain the confidence of the House. Unlike the case of a no-confidence motion, the Council of Ministers is not required to resign if the censure motion is passed.
  5. Cut Motion: This motion is used to oppose any demand in the financial bill brought by the government.

financial operations

When it comes to finance, Parliament has the ultimate authority. The executive cannot spend even a penny without approval from Parliament.

  1. The Union Budget prepared by the Cabinet is presented to the Parliament for approval. All proposals for imposing taxes must also be approved by the Parliament.
  2. Parliament has two standing committees (Public Accounts Committee and Estimates Committee) which scrutinize how the money provided by the legislature is spent.

Powers of amendment:

Parliament has the power to amend the Constitution of India. Both houses of the Parliament have equal powers. To make the amendment effective, it has to be passed in both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

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Election work:

Parliament also participates in the election of the President and Vice President. Those who elect the President include, among others, the elected members of both Houses. The President can be removed by passing a resolution by the Rajya Sabha and with the consent of the Lok Sabha.

judicial work

In case of breach of privilege by the members of the House, Parliament has the powers to punish them. Breach of privilege is a breach of any of the privileges enjoyed by MPs.

  1. A privilege motion is brought by a member when he feels that a member/minister has violated the privilege of the House.
  2. The power of Parliament to punish its members is not usually subject to judicial review.
  3. Other judicial functions of the Parliament include the power to impeach the President, Vice President, judges of the Supreme Court, High Courts, Auditor General, etc.

session of parliament

A parliamentary session of the Indian Parliament is the period during which the House sits almost every day to govern the country. usually 3 sessions in a year Are there. The process of summoning all the members of the Parliament for the Parliament session is called convening the Parliament session. The President calls the Parliament session.

  1. Budget session of Parliament (February to May)
  2. Monsoon session of Parliament (July to September)
  3. Winter session of Parliament(November to December)

Budget session of Parliament:

  1. The budget session of Parliament is held from February to May.
  2. Since 2017, Central Budget It is being presented every year on the first day of February. Earlier, it was presented on the last day of February.
  3. After the Finance Minister presents the budget, all the members discuss various provisions of the budget and matters related to taxation.
  4. Most budget sessions are divided into two periods, separated by a month.
  5. The session begins with addresses by the President to both the Houses.

Monsoon session of Parliament:

  1. The monsoon session of Parliament is held every year from July to September.
  2. It begins two months after the budget session.
  3. Matters of public interest are discussed in it.

Winter session of Parliament:

  1. The winter session of Parliament is held from mid-November to mid-December.
  2. This is the shortest session among the three sessions.
  3. This session takes up matters that could not be considered previously and makes up for the absence of legislative business during the second session of Parliament.

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